- Differential Diagnosis
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Drug Information for SUCRAID (sacrosidase) oral solution: (QOL Medical, LLC): CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
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Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is a chronic, autosomal recessive, inherited, phenotypically heterogeneous disease with very variable enzyme activity. CSID is usually characterized by a complete or almost complete lack of endogenous sucrase activity, a very marked reduction in isomaltase activity, a moderate decrease in maltase activity and normal lactase levels.
Sucrase is naturally produced in the brush border of the small intestine, primarily the distal duodenum and jejunum. Sucrase hydrolyzes the disaccharide sucrose into its component monosaccharides, glucose and fructose. Isomaltase breaks down disaccharides from starch into simple sugars. SUCRAID does not contain isomaltase.
In the absence of endogenous human sucrase, as in CSID, sucrose is not metabolized. Unhydrolyzed sucrose and starch are not absorbed from the intestine and their presence in the intestinal lumen may lead to osmotic retention of water. This may result in loose stools.
Unabsorbed sucrose in the colon is fermented by bacterial flora to produce increased amounts of hydrogen, methane and water. As a consequence, excessive gas, bloating, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting may occur.
Chronic malabsorption of disaccharides may result in malnutrition. Undiagnosed/untreated CSID patients often fail to thrive and fall behind in their expected growth and development curves. Previously, the treatment of CSID has required the continual use of a strict sucrose-free diet.
CSID is often difficult to diagnose. Approximately 4% to 10% of pediatric patients with chronic diarrhea of unknown origin have CSID. Measurement of expired breath hydrogen under controlled conditions following a sucrose challenge (a measurement of excess hydrogen excreted in exhalation) in CSID patients has shown levels as great as 6 times that in normal subjects.
A generally accepted clinical definition of CSID is a condition characterized by the following: stool pH <6, an increase in breath hydrogen of > 10ppm when challenged with sucrose after fasting and a negative lactose breath test. However, because of the difficulties in diagnosing CSID, it may be warranted to conduct a short therapeutic trial (e.g. one week) to assess response in patients suspected of having CSID.
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