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Drug Information for Ofloxacin (Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.): PRECAUTIONS
- CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
- INDICATIONS AND USAGE
- ADVERSE REACTIONS
- DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
- HOW SUPPLIED
- ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY
- MEDICATION GUIDE
- External Links Related to Ofloxacin (Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
Prescribing ofloxacin tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Adequate hydration of patients receiving ofloxacin should be maintained to prevent the formation of a highly concentrated urine.
Administer ofloxacin with caution in the presence of renal or hepatic insufficiency/impairment. In patients with known or suspected renal or hepatic insufficiency/impairment, careful clinical observation and appropriate laboratory studies should be performed prior to and during therapy since elimination of ofloxacin may be reduced. In patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance = 50 mg/mL), alteration of the dosage regimen is necessary. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Moderate to severe photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions, the latter of which may manifest as exaggerated sunburn reactions (e.g., burning, erythema, exudation, vesicles, blistering, edema) involving areas exposed to light (typically the face, “V” area of the neck, extensor surfaces of the forearms, dorsa of the hands), can be associated with the use of quinolones after sun or UV light exposure. Therefore, excessive exposure to these sources of light should be avoided. Drug therapy should be discontinued if photosensitivity/phototoxicity occurs (See ADVERSE REACTIONS/Postmarketing Adverse Events).
As with other quinolones, ofloxacin should be used with caution in any patient with a known or suspected CNS disorder that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy) or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction). (See WARNINGS and Drug Interactions.)
A possible interaction between oral hypoglycemic drugs (e.g., glyburide/glibenclamide) or with insulin and fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents have been reported resulting in a potentiation of the hypoglycemic action of these drugs. The mechanism for this interaction is not known. If a hypoglycemic reaction occurs in a patient being treated with ofloxacin, discontinue ofloxacin immediately and consult a physician. (See DrugInteractions and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
As with any potent drug, periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic, is advisable during prolonged therapy. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
Torsades de pointes:
Some quinolones, including ofloxacin, have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and infrequent cases of arrhythmia. Rare cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during post-marketing surveillance in patients receiving quinolones, including ofloxacin. Ofloxacin should be avoided in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, patients with uncorrected hypokalemia, and patients receiving class IA (quinidine, procainamide), or class III (amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents.
Information for Patients:
Patients should be advised:
- to contact their healthcare provider if they experience pain, swelling, or inflammation of a tendon, or weakness or inability to use one of their joints; rest and refrain from exercise; and discontinue ofloxacin treatment. The risk of severe tendon disorders with fluoroquinolones is higher in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants;
- that antibacterial drugs including ofloxacin tablets should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When ofloxacin tablets are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by ofloxacin tablets or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
- that peripheral neuropathies have been associated with ofloxacin use. If symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness develop, they should discontinue treatment and contact their physicians;
- to drink fluids liberally;
- that mineral supplements, vitamins with iron or minerals, calcium- , aluminum- or magnesium-based antacids, sucralfate or Videx® (didanosine) should not be taken within the two-hour period before or within the two-hour period after taking ofloxacin (See Drug Interactions);
- that ofloxacin can be taken without regard to meals;
- that ofloxacin may cause neurologic adverse effects (e.g., dizziness, lightheadedness) and that patients should know how they react to ofloxacin before they operate an automobile or machinery or engage in activities requiring mental alertness and coordination (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS);
- that ofloxacin may be associated with hypersensitivity reactions, even following the first dose, to discontinue the drug at the first sign of a skin rash, hives or other skin reactions, a rapid heartbeat, difficulty in swallowing or breathing, any swelling suggesting angioedema (e.g., swelling of the lips, tongue, face; tightness of the throat, hoarseness), or any other symptom of an allergic reaction (See WARNINGS and ADVERSEREACTIONS);
- that photosensitivity/phototoxicity has been reported in patients receiving quinolone antibiotics. Patients should minimize or avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight (tanning beds or UVA/B treatment) while taking quinolones. If patients need to be outdoors while using quinolones, they should wear loose-fitting clothes that protect skin from sun exposure and discuss other sun protection measures with their physician. If a sunburn-like reaction or skin eruption occurs, patients should contact their physician;
- that if they are diabetic and are being treated with insulin or an oral hypoglycemic drug, to discontinue ofloxacin immediately if a hypoglycemic reaction occurs and consult a physician (See PRECAUTIONS: General and Drug Interactions);
- that convulsions have been reported in patients taking quinolones, including ofloxacin, and to notify their physician before taking this drug if there is a history of this condition;
- that diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible;
- to inform their physician of any personal or family history of QTc prolongation or proarrhythmic conditions such as hypokalemia, bradycardia, or recent myocardial ischemia; if they are taking any class IA (quinidine, procainamide), or class III (amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. Patients should notify their physicians if they have any symptoms of prolongation of the QTc interval including prolonged heart palpitations or a loss of consciousness.
Antacids, Sucralfate, Metal Cations, Multivitamins:
Quinolones form chelates with alkaline earth and transition metal cations. Administration of quinolones with antacids containing calcium, magnesium, or aluminum, with sucralfate, with divalent or trivalent cations such as iron, or with multivitamins containing zinc or with Videx ® (didanosine) may substantially interfere with the absorption of quinolones resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. These agents should not be taken within the two-hour period before or within the two-hour period after ofloxacin administration. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Interactions between ofloxacin and caffeine have not been detected.
Cimetidine has demonstrated interference with the elimination of some quinolones. This interference has resulted in significant increases in half-life and AUC of some quinolones. The potential for interaction between ofloxacin and cimetidine has not been studied.
Elevated serum levels of cyclosporine have been reported with concomitant use of cyclosporine with some other quinolones. The potential for interaction between ofloxacin and cyclosporine has not been studied.
Drugs metabolized by Cytochrome P450 enzymes:
Most quinolone antimicrobial drugs inhibit cytochrome P450 enzyme activity. This may result in a prolonged half-life for some drugs that are also metabolized by this system (e.g., cyclosporine, theophylline/methylxanthines, warfarin) when co-administered with quinolones. The extent of this inhibition varies among different quinolones. (See other Drug Interactions.)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:
The concomitant administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a quinolone, including ofloxacin, may increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS: General.)
The concomitant use of probenecid with certain other quinolones has been reported to affect renal tubular secretion. The effect of probenecid on the elimination of ofloxacin has not been studied.
Steady-state theophylline levels may increase when ofloxacin and theophylline are administered concurrently. As with other quinolones, concomitant administration of ofloxacin may prolong the half-life of theophylline, elevate serum theophylline levels, and increase the risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions. Theophylline levels should be closely monitored and theophylline dosage adjustments made, if appropriate, when ofloxacin is co-administered. Adverse reactions (including seizures) may occur with or without an elevation in the serum theophylline level. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS: General.)
Some quinolones have been reported to enhance the effects of the oral anticoagulant warfarin or its derivatives. Therefore, if a quinolone antimicrobial is administered concomitantly with warfarin or its derivatives, the prothrombin time or other suitable coagulation test should be closely monitored.
Antidiabetic agents (e.g., insulin, glyburide/glibenclamide):
Since disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concurrently with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when these agents are used concomitantly. (See PRECAUTIONS: General and Information for Patients.)
Interaction with Laboratory or Diagnostic Testing:
Some quinolones, including ofloxacin, may produce false-positive urine screening results for opiates using commercially available immunoassay kits. Confirmation of positive opiate screens by more specific methods may be necessary.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term studies to determine the carcinogenic potential of ofloxacin have not been conducted.
Ofloxacin was not mutagenic in the Ames bacterial test, in vitro and in vivo cytogenetic assay, sister chromatid exchange (Chinese Hamster and Human Cell Lines), unscheduled DNA Repair (UDS) using human fibroblasts, dominant lethal assays, or mouse micronucleus assay. Ofloxacin was positive in the UDS test using rat hepatocytes and Mouse Lymphoma Assay
Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C.
Ofloxacin has not been shown to have any teratogenic effects at oral doses as high as 810 mg/kg/day (11 times the recommended maximum human dose based on mg/m 2 or 50 times based on mg/kg) and 160 mg/kg/day (4 times the recommended maximum human dose based on mg/m2 or 10 times based on mg/kg) when administered to pregnant rats and rabbits, respectively. Additional studies in rats with oral doses up to 360 mg/kg/day (5 times the recommended maximum human dose based on mg/m2 or 23 times based on mg/kg) demonstrated no adverse effect on late fetal development, labor, delivery, lactation, neonatal viability, or growth of the newborn. Doses equivalent to 50 and 10 times the recommended maximum human dose of ofloxacin (based on mg/kg) were fetotoxic (i.e., decreased fetal body weight and increased fetal mortality) in rats and rabbits, respectively. Minor skeletal variations were reported in rats receiving doses of 810 mg/kg/day, which is more than 10 times higher than the recommended maximum human dose based on mg/m2.
There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Ofloxacin should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. (See WARNINGS.)
In lactating females, a single oral 200 mg dose of ofloxacin resulted in concentrations of ofloxacin in milk that were similar to those found in plasma. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from ofloxacin in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients and adolescents below the age of 18 years have not been established. Ofloxacin causes arthropathy (arthrosis) and osteochondrosis in juvenile animals of several species. (See WARNINGS.)
Geriatric patients are at increased risk for developing severe tendon disorders including tendon rupture when being treated with a fluoroquinolone such as ofloxacin. This risk is further increased in patients receiving concomitant corticosteroid therapy. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can involves the Achilles, hand, shoulder, or other tendon sites and can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after fluoroquinolone treatment have been reported. Caution should be used when prescribing ofloxacin to elderly patients especially those on corticosteroids. Patients should be informed of this potential side effect and advised to discontinue ofloxacin and contact their healthcare provider if any symptoms of tendinitis or tendon rupture occur (See Boxed Warning, WARNINGS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS/Postmarketing Adverse Event Reports).
In phase 2/3 clinical trials with ofloxacin, 688 patients (14.2%) were = 65 years of age. Of these, 436 patients (9%) were between the ages of 65 and 74 and 252 patients (5.2%) were 75 years or older. There was no apparent difference in the frequency or severity of adverse reactions in elderly adults compared with younger adults. The pharmacokinetic properties of ofloxacin in elderly subjects are similar to those in younger subjects. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by age. Dosage adjustment is necessary for elderly patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance rate = 50 mL/min) due to reduced clearance of ofloxacin. In comparative studies, the frequency and severity of most drug-related nervous system events in patients = 65 years of age were comparable for ofloxacin and control drugs. The only differences identified were an increase in reports of insomnia (3.9% vs 1.5%) and headache (4.7% vs 1.8%) with ofloxacin. It is important to note that these geriatric safety data are extracted from 44 comparative studies where the adverse reaction information from 20 different controls (other antibiotics or placebo) were pooled for comparison with ofloxacin. The clinical significance of such a comparison is not clear. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Elderly patients may be more sensitive to drug-associated effects on the QT interval. Therefore, precaution should be taken when using ofloxacin with concomitant drugs that can result in prolongation of the QT interval (e.g. Class IA or Class III antiarrhythmics) or in patients with risk factors for Torsade de pointes (e.g. known QT prolongation, uncorrected hypokalemia). (See PRECAUTIONS: General: Torsades de pointes)
- Drug Information Provided by National Library of Medicine (NLM).