- Differential Diagnosis
Drug Information for AMOXICILLIN AND CLAVULANATE POTASSIUM TABLETS USP, 500 mg/125 mg and 875 mg/125 mg22742275Rx only (TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA): CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
- CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
- INDICATIONS AND USAGE
- ADVERSE REACTIONS
- DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
- HOW SUPPLIED
- CLINICAL STUDIES
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Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium are well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Dosing in the fasted or fed state has minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. While amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium can be given without regard to meals, absorption of clavulanate potassium when taken with food is greater relative to the fasted state. In 1 study, the relative bioavailability of clavulanate was reduced when amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium was dosed at 30 and 150 minutes after the start of a high-fat breakfast. The safety and efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium have been established in clinical trials where amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium was taken without regard to meals.
Mean * amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium pharmacokinetic parameters are shown in the table below:
* Mean values of 14 normal volunteers (n = 15 for clavulanate potassium in the low-dose regimens). Peak concentrations occurred approximately 1.5 hours after the dose.† Administered at the start of a light meal.
Dose†and regimen AUC0-24 (mcg•hr/mL) Cmax (mcg/mL) amoxicillin/ clavulanate potassium amoxicillin (± S.D.) clavulanate potassium (± S.D.) amoxicillin (± S.D.) clavulanate potassium (± S.D.) 250/125 mg q8h 26.7 ± 4.56 12.6 ± 3.25 3.3 ± 1.12 1.5 ± 0.70 500/125 mg q12h 33.4 ± 6.76 8.6 ± 1.95 6.5 ± 1.41 1.8 ± 0.61 500/125 mg q8h 53.4 ± 8.87 15.7 ± 3.86 7.2 ± 2.26 2.4 ± 0.83 875/125 mg q12h 53.5 ± 12.31 10.2 ± 3.04 11.6 ± 2.78 2.2 ± 0.99
Amoxicillin serum concentrations achieved with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium are similar to those produced by the oral administration of equivalent doses of amoxicillin alone. The half-life of amoxicillin after the oral administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is 1.3 hours and that of clavulanic acid is 1.0 hour.
Approximately 50% to 70% of the amoxicillin and approximately 25% to 40% of the clavulanic acid are excreted unchanged in urine during the first 6 hours after administration of a single amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet, 250 mg/125 mg or 500 mg/125 mg.
Concurrent administration of probenecid delays amoxicillin excretion but does not delay renal excretion of clavulanic acid.
Neither component in amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is highly protein-bound; clavulanic acid has been found to be approximately 25% bound to human serum and amoxicillin approximately 18% bound.
Amoxicillin diffuses readily into most body tissues and fluids with the exception of the brain and spinal fluid. The results of experiments involving the administration of clavulanic acid to animals suggest that this compound, like amoxicillin, is well distributed in body tissues.
Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Amoxicillin is, however, susceptible to degradation by β-lactamases, and therefore, the spectrum of activity does not include organisms which produce these enzymes. Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam, structurally related to the penicillins, which possesses the ability to inactivate a wide range of β-lactamase enzymes commonly found in microorganisms resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins. In particular, it has good activity against the clinically important plasmid-mediated β-lactamases frequently responsible for transferred drug resistance.
The formulation of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium protects amoxicillin from degradation by β-lactamase enzymes and effectively extends the antibiotic spectrum of amoxicillin to include many bacteria normally resistant to amoxicillin and other β-lactam antibiotics. Thus, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium possesses the properties of a broad-spectrum antibiotic and a β-lactamase inhibitor.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in INDICATIONS AND USAGE.
Staphylococcus aureus (β-lactamase and non-β-lactamase-producing) †
†Staphylococci which are resistant to methicillin/oxacillin must be considered resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
Enterobacter species (Although most strains of Enterobacter species are resistant in vitro, clinical efficacy has been demonstrated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in urinary tract infections caused by these organisms.)
Escherichia coli (β-lactamase and non-β-lactamase-producing)
Haemophilus influenzae (β-lactamase and non-β-lactamase-producing)
Klebsiella species (All known strains are β-lactamase-producing.)
Moraxella catarrhalis (β-lactamase and non-β-lactamase-producing)
The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid exhibits in vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2 mcg/mL or less against most (≥ 90%) strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae§; MICs of 0.06 mcg/mL or less against most (≥ 90%) strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae; MICs of 4 mcg/mL or less against most (≥ 90%) strains of staphylococci and anaerobic bacteria; and MICs of 8 mcg/mL or less against most (≥ 90%) strains of other listed organisms. However, with the exception of organisms shown to respond to amoxicillin alone, the safety and effectiveness of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms have not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.
§Because amoxicillin has greater in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae than does ampicillin or penicillin, the majority of S. pneumoniae strains with intermediate susceptibility to ampicillin or penicillin are fully susceptible to amoxicillin.
Staphylococcus epidermidis (β-lactamase and non-β-lactamase-producing)
Staphylococcus saprophyticus (β-lactamase and non-β-lactamase-producing)
viridans group Streptococcus¶**
Eikenella corrodens (β-lactamase and non-β-lactamase-producing)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae¶ (β-lactamase and non-β-lactamase-producing)
Proteus mirabilis¶ (β-lactamase and non-β-lactamase-producing)
Bacteroides species, including Bacteroides fragilis (β-lactamase and non-β-lactamase- producing)
Fusobacterium species (β-lactamase and non-β-lactamase-producing)
Peptostreptococcus species **
¶ Adequate and well-controlled clinical trials have established the effectiveness of amoxicillin alone in treating certain clinical infections due to these organisms.
**These are non-β-lactamase-producing organisms, and therefore, are susceptible to amoxicillin alone.
Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial MICs. These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method 1 (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium powder.
The recommended dilution pattern utilizes a constant amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium ratio of 2 to 1 in all tubes with varying amounts of amoxicillin. MICs are expressed in terms of the amoxicillin concentration in the presence of clavulanic acid at a constant 2 parts amoxicillin to 1 part clavulanic acid. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
RECOMMENDED RANGES FOR AMOXICILLIN/CLAVULANIC ACID SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING
For Gram-Negative Enteric Aerobes:
MIC (mcg/mL) Interpretation ≤ 8/4 Susceptible (S) 16/8 Intermediate (I) ≥ 32/16 Resistant (R)
For Staphylococcus**and Haemophilus species:
** Staphylococci which are susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid but resistant to methicillin/oxacillin must be considered as resistant.
MIC (mcg/mL) Interpretation ≤ 4/2 Susceptible (S) ≥ 8/4 Resistant (R)
For S. pneumoniae from non-meningitis sources:
Isolates should be tested using amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and the following criteria should be used:
MIC (mcg/mL) Interpretation ≤ 2/1 Susceptible (S) 4/2 Intermediate (I) ≥ 8/4 Resistant (R)
NOTE:These interpretive criteria are based on the recommended doses for respiratory tract infections.
A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentration usually achievable. A report of “Intermediate” indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone, which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.
Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium powder should provide the following MIC values:
†† Expressed as concentration of amoxicillin in the presence of clavulanic acid at a constant 2 parts amoxicillin to 1 part clavulanic acid.
Microorganism MIC Range (mcg/mL)†† Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 2 to 8 Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 4 to 16 Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 0.25 to 1.0 Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247 2 to 16 Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 0.12 to 0.5 Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 0.03 to 0.12
Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure 2 requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 30 mcg of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (20 mcg amoxicillin plus 10 mcg clavulanate potassium) to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 30 mcg amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (20 mcg amoxicillin plus 10 mcg clavulanate potassium) disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
RECOMMENDED RANGES FOR AMOXICILLIN/CLAVULANIC ACID SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING
Zone Diameter (mm) Interpretation ≥ 20 Susceptible (S) ≤ 19 Resistant (R)
For Other Organisms Except S. pneumoniaeband N. gonorrhoeaec:
†† Staphylococci which are resistant to methicillin/oxacillin must be considered as resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.a A broth microdilution method should be used for testing H. influenzae. Beta-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant strains must be considered resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.b Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae should be determined using a 1 mcg oxacillin disk. Isolates with oxacillin zone sizes of ≥ 20 mm are susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. An amoxicillin/clavulanic acid MIC should be determined on isolates of S. pneumoniae with oxacillin zone sizes of ≤ 19 mm.c A broth microdilution method should be used for testing N. gonorrhoeae and interpreted according to penicillin breakpoints.
Zone Diameter (mm) Interpretation ≥ 18 Susceptible (S) 14 to 17 Intermediate (I) ≤ 13 Resistant (R)
Interpretation should be as stated above for results using dilution techniques. Interpretation involves correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the MIC for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
As with standardized dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control microorganisms that are used to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. For the diffusion technique, the 30 mcg amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (20 mcg amoxicillin plus 10 mcg clavulanate potassium) disk should provide the following zone diameters in these laboratory quality control strains:
Microorganism Zone Diameter (mm) Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 19 to 25 Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 18 to 22 Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 28 to 36
- Drug Information Provided by National Library of Medicine (NLM).