Disease Information for Rotavirus infection/Enteritis

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Clinical Manifestations
Signs & Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
Abdominal Pain in Children
Acute Diarrhea
Acute Diarrhea in Children
Diarrhea
Diarrhea in Children
Diarrhea, crampy
Diarrhea, watery/rice-water
Nausea
Vomiting
Vomiting in Children
Watery Diarrhea
Constitutional symptoms
Fever
Fever in kids
High body temperature
Disease Progression
Course/7-10 days
Course/Acute
Course/Acute only
Course/Few days
Incubation/Two days
Demographics & Risk Factors
Exposure Factors
Exposure/Clusters of cases in a short time
Exposure/Contaminated food supply
Exposure/Fecal/oral route infection spread
Exposure/Raw sewerage
Exposure/Sewage
Population Group
Child
Infant
Population/Pediatrics population
Event, Activity, Behavioral & Seasonal Factors
Event/Community clusters/family members also ill
Event/Springtime
Event/Wintertime
Sex & Age Groups
Population/Child
Population/Children/all
Population/Infant
Population/Older baby 6-12 months
Population/Preschool child
Population/Young child ('Twos')
Laboratory Tests
Microbiology & Serology Findings
Microlab/Rotavirus antibody titer
Microlab/Direct fluorescent antibody/DFA abnormal
Microlab/PCR/Antigen test/Abnormal
Microlab/Virus culture abnormal
Microlab/Viral stool culture abnormal
Abnormal Lab Findings (Non Measured)
Right Shift (Viral) Differential Smear (Lab)
Associated Diseases & Rule outs
Rule Outs
Food poisoning
Associated Disease & Complications
Acrodermatitis, Papular, infantile
Acute gastroenteritis
Colitis
Dehydration
Enterovirus infection
Gastritis/viral/secondary
Gastroenteritis, acute infectious
Infectious colitis/diarrhea syndrome
Infectious diarrhea, infant
Papular acrodermatitis/childhood
Rotavirus infection
Rotavirus infection/enteritis
Viral gastroenteritis
Disease Mechanism & Classification
Specific Agent
AGENT/Epidemic disease (ex)
AGENT/Foodbourne infection
AGENT/Highly Contagious/infectious
AGENT/Opportunistic infection prone (example)
AGENT/RNA virus (ex)
AGENT/Virus (category)
Class
CLASS/Pediatric disorders (ex)
Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology/Infectious diarrhea (ex)
Process
PROCESS/Acute infection (ex).
PROCESS/Infection/agent specific (category)
Treatment
Drug Therapy - Indication
RX/Vaccination/immunization prophylaxis
RX/Vaccine available may be indicated
Definition

Rotavirus: Rotavirus is extremely contagious; Day cares, preschools, and homes with young children are invisible forests of rotavirus; The living, spreading virus remains active on human hands for at least 4 hours, on hard dry surfaces for 10 days, and on wet areas for weeks! Want a good reason to carry a little bottle in your purse, glove compartment, or pocket? Do you dislike vomiting and feeling nauseated? Alcohol-based instant hand sanitizers kill rotavirus in seconds; Rotavirus is a global problem; It is the leading cause both of routine vomiting and diarrhea illnesses, and of severe, life-threatening diarrhea in every country in the world; Who gits it ? Everybody; Almost every child on the planet becomes infected by age 5; The older and healthier the child is when infected, and the fewer viral particles swallowed, the milder the disease; The typical story is of a child between the ages of 3 months and 2 years; On average, those in day care and those who are not breastfed tend to get sick at the earlier end of that spectrum, when they are more vulnerable; Re-infections are common, but usually not as severe; One third to one half of exposed adults will get a mild infection when exposed to an ill child;

Most cases occur between November and May in the temperate climates of the northern hemisphere; In the US, rotavirus often moves across the country in a wave; It usually starts in the southwest in November or December and ends in the northeast in April or May; In the developed countries, the health-care system protects most children from the worst ravages of this disease; Still, in the US rotavirus is responsible for more than 3; 5 million diarrhea illnesses, half a million physician visits, 50,000 hospitalizations, and 20 tragic deaths each year; Many places in the world are not so fortunate; What are the symptoms? The infection usually begins with a mild to moderate fever; Soon the little one begins to vomit and has a nasty tummy-ache; The vomiting and fever go away after a day or two, followed by watery diarrhea that lasts from 3 to 9 (usually 5 to 7) days; Most of the time, kids recover with little difficulty; Sometimes, severe dehydration results; The extreme dehydration that can be caused by rotaviruses is second only to the dehydration caused by cholera; Is it contagious?Rotavirus is extremely contagious; Only a very few particles are needed to transmit infection; They are found in the stool in very high concentrations, beginning before the illness; They are also found throughout the environment wherever young children spend much time, especially during the winter How long does it last? Most children develop symptoms within 48 hours of swallowing the bacteria; Symptoms are usually over within 9 days, and sometimes sooner; High concentrations of virus remain in the stool for 10 to 12 days after the symptoms begin in otherwise healthy children; How is it diagnosed? The diagnosis is often based on the history and the physical exam; Specific rotavirus tests are available if the diagnosis is not clear; Other diagnoses are likely whenever there is persistent high fever, bile in the vomit, or blood or pus in the stool; How is it treated?Treatment is aimed at preventing and treating dehydration; Oral electrolyte solutions, or even IV electrolyte solutions, are often needed; There is no specific treatment for rotavirus; When children are able to tolerate it, active culture yogurt or other sources of beneficial bacteria can decrease diarrhea and speed resolution of rotavirus infections; How can it be prevented? Rotavirus is spread primarily via the fecal-oral route; Invisible viral particles from the stool hide on hands, toys, and surfaces; From there, they make it into someone"s mouth; Children whose stool overflows diapers or toilets should be kept out of day cares and schools; General fecal-oral and fomite precautions also decrease the spread of rotavirus; Every child eventually gets it, but cleaning and hand washing can delay infections and make them milder and briefer-----------------------[allexperts website 2007]------------------------

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External Links Related to Rotavirus infection/Enteritis
Google
Wikipedia
Merck
Images
PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
NGC (National Guideline Clearinghouse)
Medscape (eMedicine)
Harrison's Online (accessmedicine)
NEJM (The New England Journal of Medicine)
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