Disease Information for Raynaud's phenomenon

Clinical Manifestations
Signs & Symptoms
Acrocyanosis/Cyanosis extremities
Decreased peripheral pulses
Digital pallor/vasospasm
Digital ulceration/fingertips
Dorsalis pedis pulse decreased
Nailfold capillary/giant loops sign
Regional pallor/vasospasm
Unilateral hand/fingers cold/pale
Vasospasm of extremities/Signs
White/blanching area discoloration
Finger Lesions
Fingernails brittle/thinner/splitting
Hyperhidrosis/local (extremity)
Arm Pain
Cold hands/fingers and toes
Cool extremities
Cyanotic extremity
Extremity pale/cold/numb/painful
Finger Pain
Finger tips/painful/tender
Hand Pain and Swelling Unilateral
Hand pain/numbness relieved by shaking
Hand Pains
Multiple Digits Painful
Numbness of feet
Painful finger pads
Painful/finger tips
Palmar Edema
Palmar Swelling
Sweating palms
Toe pains
Unilateral Palmar Swelling
Upper extremity pains
Numbness one hand
Numbness/distal fingers and toes
Blue nailbeds
Tobacco Habit/Excess
Foot Pain
Hand pain and swelling bilateral
Midfoot pain
Disease Progression
Course/Attacks Episodic Spells
Demographics & Risk Factors
Ethnic or Racial Factors
Established Disease Population
Patient/Hyperviscosity syndrome
Population Group
Middle Age Adult
Family History
Family history/Circulatory problems
Event, Activity, Behavioral & Seasonal Factors
Sex & Age Groups
Population/Woman patient
Diagnostic Test Results
Other Tests & Procedures
Extremity Plethsmography Abnormal
Xray/Distal Phalanges Tuft Resorption
Associated Diseases & Rule outs
Rule Outs
Peripheral arterial blockage/limb ischemia
Associated Disease & Complications
Raynaud's syndrome
Disease Synergy - Causes
Synergy/Cold environment
Synergy/Cold water/drinking/washing exposure trigger
Synergy/Psychologic stress
Synergy/Tobacco smoking
Disease Mechanism & Classification
CLASS/Cardiovascular (category)
CLASS/Vascular disorder (ex).
CLASS/Digit disorder (ex)
CLASS/Extremities/Digits/Hand feet disorder (category)
Pathophysiology/Vasospastic dysfunction
PROCESS/Eponymic (category)
PROCESS/Vegetative-Autonomic/Endocrine (category)
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Drug Therapy - Contraindication
RX/Propranolol (Inderal)
Drug Therapy - Indication
RX/Hydralazine (Apresoline)
RX/Nifedipine (Procardia)
RX/Prazosin (Minizide)

WHAT: Raynaud's phenomenon. Raynaud's Phenomenon: the paroxysmal constriction of the small arteries and arterioles of the hands or feet, usually precipitated by cold or emotional upset, resulting in pallor and cyanosis of the fingers or toes following a characteristic pattern. WHY: Raynaud's phenomenon may occur in mixed connective tissue disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, poly- myositis/dermatomyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis associated with Sjogren's syndrome. HOW: In Raynaud's phenomenon there are three classic color changes of the fingers or toes. First, vasoconstriction results in a white blanching of the fingertips. Second, vasodilatation with sludging of vascular flow follows and results in blue, cyanotic digits. Finally, with recovery, there is increased blood flow with resulting erythema of the fingers. With observation of two of the three color changes, Raynaud's phenomenon is considered present. Local body cooling (by placing the hands in ice cold water) may demonstrate Raynaud's phenomenon, but some cases require general body cooling before the characteristic color phases occur. Permanent tissue damage can be induced by this testing, which therefore must be done only when absolutely necessary. If the digits show persistent cyanosis or there is evidence of pre-existing necrosis, performing this test is especially hazardous. One or more digits may be involved in Raynaud's phenomenon, and this involvement may be unilateral. REFS: 1) Spittell, JA: "Raynaud's phenomenon and allied vasospastic disorders". In Juergens, JL et al. (eds.): Peripheral Vascular Diseases, pp. 555-83. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1980. 2) Porter, JM; Snider, RL; Bardana, EJ; Rosch, J and Eidemiller, LR: The diagnosis and treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon. Surgery 77:11, 1975. DN19300-3.


External Links Related to Raynaud's phenomenon
PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
NGC (National Guideline Clearinghouse)
Medscape (eMedicine)
Harrison's Online (accessmedicine)
NEJM (The New England Journal of Medicine)