Disease Information for Ophthalmic cysticercosis/retina

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Clinical Manifestations
Signs & Symptoms
Acute Vision Loss
Flashing Spots/Lights in Vision
Visual Problems
Associated Diseases & Rule outs
Rule Outs
Diabetic retinopathy
Associated Disease & Complications
Blindness
Blindness in Children
Optic neuritis
Definition

History of exposure to Taenia solium in an endemic region; concomitant or past intestinal tapeworm infection; Seizures, headache, and other findings of a focal space-occupying central nervous system lesion; Subcutaneous or muscular nodules (5–10 mm); calcified lesions on x-rays of soft tissues; Calcified or uncalcified cysts by CT scan or MRI; positive serologic tests;Human cysticercosis is infection by the larval (cysticercus) stage of the tapeworm T solium (see above); Worldwide, an estimated 20 million persons are infected and 50,000 deaths occur yearly; Antibody prevalence rates to 10% are recognized in some endemic areas; The infection is one the most important causes of seizures in the developing world; Attached to the inner wall of the cyst is an invaginated protoscolex with four suckers and a crown of hooks; When host immune response or chemotherapy causes gradual death of the cyst, marked inflammation and pericyst edema can occur, producing a ring-like or nodular area of enhancement with contrast media (the granulomatous or enhancing cyst); concurrent events include cyst enlargement, mechanical compression, increased intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid changes, and sometimes a vasculitis that results in small cerebral infarcts; The immune response is intense in many patients, but some show a remarkable tolerance; Later, as the cyst degenerates over 2–7 years, it may become undetectable with imaging or be replaced by fibrosis with calcification that is detectable;Locations of cysts in order of frequency are the central nervous system (where cysts at different life cycle stages—live, transitional, dead—may be present at the same time), subcutaneous tissues and striated muscle, vitreous humor of the eye, and, rarely, other tissues; Neurocysticercosis ;In many patients, cysts remain asymptomatic; When symptomatic, the incubation period is highly variable (usually from 1 to 5 years); Manifestations are due to mass effect, inflammatory response, or obstruction of the brain foramina and ventricular systems; Neurologic findings are varied and nonspecific, in large part determined by the number and location of the cysts; Acute invasive stage (cysticercotic encephalitis):

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Harrison's Online (accessmedicine)
NEJM (The New England Journal of Medicine)
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