Disease Information for Methemoglobinemia, acquired/toxic

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Clinical Manifestations
Signs & Symptoms
Acrocyanosis/Cyanosis extremities
Blue lips
Cyanosis
Venipuncture/Chocolate colored blood/sign
Nausea
Vomiting
Blue Tongue
Altered mental status Mental status change
Confusion/agitation on exam
Confusion/Disoriented
Dizziness/Dizzy
Headache
Irritability/short tempered
Obtunded/poorly responsive status/signs
Seizures
Stupor/poor reponse to stimulus
Sudden unconsciousness
Unconscious/Narcosis status
Cyanosis Child
Cyanosis Newborn
Hyperpnea
Rapid Breathing
Shortness of breath/SOB
Sudden onset dyspnea
Tachypnea/Increased respiratory rate
Typical Clinical Presentation
Coma with normal Head CT Scan
Cyanotic with normal AO2/O2 Sat
Clinical Presentation & Variations
Presentation/Collapse Seizure Acidosis Anaerobic
Disease Progression
Course/Acute
Course/Chronic disorder
Course/Subacute
Laboratory Tests
Abnormal Lab Findings (Non Measured)
Hemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve/abnormal (Lab)
Abnormal Lab Findings - Increased
Methemoglobin (Lab)
URINE Methemoglobin
Diagnostic Test Results
X-RAY
Xray/Basal ganglia calcification/Skull
Xray/Multiple intracranial calcifications/Head
Ultrasound
Ultrasound/Renal/Kidneys echogenic cortex bilateral
Associated Diseases & Rule outs
Rule Outs
Anemia
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Hypoxia, systemic
Associated Disease & Complications
Angina pectoris
Cardiac arrhythmias
Coma/Unconscious
Convulsions (grand mal)
Death/Unanticipated
Methemoglobinemia
Polycythemia (compensatory)/secondary/anoxia
Syncope/Fainting
Disease Mechanism & Classification
Class
CLASS/Erythrocyte disorder (ex)
CLASS/Hematologic (category)
Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology/Hemoglobin, high-affinity status
Pathophysiology/Tissue hypoxia/potential
Process
PROCESS/Biochemical (category)
PROCESS/Metabolic/storage disorder (category)
PROCESS/Hemoglobinopathy disorder (ex)
Toxin
TOXIN/Cellular hypoxia oxidative/hgb release
Treatment
Drug Therapy - Indication
RX/Methylene blue
Definition

Oxidant drug or poison causes methemoglobinemia; this changes the dissociation curve so oxygen is tightly bound to hemoglobin now in oxidized state. o2 sat and pulse ox and ao2 reads normal even up to 40% of hgb converted to useless form; methylene blue is the treatment; hereditary recessive disorder existswith absent reductase defect; there is a dominant hereditary hgbM where this is a formed molecule; nitrites, oxidate chemicals; sulfonamides, dapsone, local anesthetics, and pyridium cause this in some;

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External Links Related to Methemoglobinemia, acquired/toxic
Google
Wikipedia
Merck
Images
PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
NGC (National Guideline Clearinghouse)
Medscape (eMedicine)
Harrison's Online (accessmedicine)
NEJM (The New England Journal of Medicine)
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