Disease Information for Internal Jugular Vein thrombosis/phlebitis

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Clinical Manifestations
Signs & Symptoms
Engorged scalp veins
Head and Neck Soft Tissue Mass
Lateral Neck Mass
Lump in Cervical Area
Neck Mass
Jugular Vein Distension/Unilateral
Confusion/Disoriented
Laboratory Tests
Abnormal Lab Findings - Increased
Fibrin Degredation Product (FDP) (Lab)
Fibrin Split Products/FSP/Dimers/Monomers (Lab)
FibrinPeptide A
Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH LH) (Lab)
Soluble Fibrin Monomers [LAB]
Diagnostic Test Results
X-RAY
Xray/Cavitation/Cavitary lung lesion/Chest
Associated Diseases & Rule outs
Rule Outs
Temporal/Craniotemporal arteritis
Associated Disease & Complications
Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis Septic
Lung abscess
Synonyms
Synonym
jugular thrombosis, Jugular vein thrombosis, thrombosis jugular, Synonym/Lemierre syndrome (Int jug vein)
Definition

Often with sepsis in middle ear and mastioiditis; complication of NOT using needed antibiotic soon enough with ear infections?? Eponymn is rosenberger syndrome

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Thrombosis of the internal jugular (IJ) vein is an underdiagnosed condition that may occur as a complication of head and neck infections, surgery, central venous access, and intravenous drug abuse; IJ thrombosis itself can have serious potentially life-threatening complications that include systemic sepsis and pulmonary embolism; The diagnosis often is very challenging and requires, first and foremost, a high degree of clinical suspicion;

At the turn of the 20th century, thrombosis of the IJ vein was a feared complication of acute oropharyngeal infection; In 1936, Lemierre described the first case series of septic thrombophlebitis of the IJ vein, often complicated by metastatic infection; The diagnosis was easy to make, although before the advent of effective antibiotic therapy, little could be offered and more than 50% of patients died; Today, with widespread use of the IJ vein for venous access, central venous catheters now are the most common underlying cause of IJ thrombosis; Of concern is a recent trend in increasing number of individuals who abuse intravenous drugs who present with IJ thrombosis secondary to repeated drug injection directly into the IJ vein; IJ vein thrombosis refers to an intraluminal thrombus occurring anywhere from the origin of the IJ vein in the cranium down to the point where it joins the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein;

The thrombosis may become secondarily infected, producing a septic thrombophlebitis; An infected IJ thrombus caused by extension of an oropharyngeal infection is referred to as Lemierre syndrome; This has also been termed necrobacillosis or postanginal septicemia; The incidence of Lemierre syndrome has fallen dramatically since the use of antibiotics began in the late 1950s; However, it still occurs, particularly in underserved populations; Recent case series describe IJ thrombosis rates of 25-30% following functional neck dissection;

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External Links Related to Internal Jugular Vein thrombosis/phlebitis
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PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
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Medscape (eMedicine)
Harrison's Online (accessmedicine)
NEJM (The New England Journal of Medicine)
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