Disease Information for Heterophyes intestinal fluke

Clinical Manifestations
Signs & Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
Abdominal Pain in Children
Blood in stool
Chronic Diarrhea in a Child
Colicky Abdominal Pain
Diarrhea in Children
Diarrhea, crampy
Glove stool exam guaiac positive
Hematochezia/Blood per Rectum
Mucus and blood in stool
STOOL Mucus excess
Clinical Presentation & Variations
Presentation/Liver Heart Brain involvement
Demographics & Risk Factors
Exposure Factors
Exposure/Raw fish ingestion
Travel, Geographic & Climate Related Factors
Residence/travel/Hong Kong
Residence/travel/Middle East
Ethnic or Racial Factors
African black population
African white population
Asian Indian population
Chinese population
Egyptian population
Hawaiian ethnic/racial population
Iran population/ethnic
Israel/Israeli population
Korean population
Middle Eastern Population
Saudi Arabian population
Thai population
Vietnamese ethnic/population
Recent Event
Recent/Travel/International 6-18 months ago
Population Group
Population/Immigrant population
Laboratory Tests
Microbiology & Serology Findings
Microlab/Stool Formed elements/stool microscope exam
Microlab/Stool Oocyste
Microlab/Stool ova/parasites/abnormal
Abnormal Lab Findings - Increased
STOOL Occult blood
Diagnostic Test Results
Other Tests & Procedures
Colonoscopy/Terminal ileum lesions
CT Scan
CT Scan/CTA Abdomen Abnormal
CT/Enterography Abnormal
X-RAY With contrast
SBS/Abnormal Small Bowel Series
Associated Diseases & Rule outs
Associated Disease & Complications
Intestine involvement/manifestaion
Jejunal ulceration
Disease Mechanism & Classification
Specific Agent
AGENT/Endemic disease (ex)
AGENT/Larval effects
AGENT/Migrating/invading larval forms
AGENT/Parasites (category)
AGENT/Trematode parasite (example)
CLASS/Ileum involvement/manifestation
CLASS/Jejunum involvement/disorder (ex)
Pathophysiology/Overwhelming larval/parasitemia possible
PROCESS/INCIDENCE/Regional specific
fluke disease intestine, Intestinal fluke infection, Intestinal fluke infection (disorder), Synonym/Heterophyes intestinal fluke, Synonym/intestinal fluke/smalltype
Drug Therapy - Indication
RX/Praziquantel (Biltricide)

Heterophyes heterophyes, a minute intestinal fluke-trematode : Adults release embryonated eggs each with a fully-developed miracidium, and eggs are passed in the host"s feces ; After ingestion by a suitable snail (first intermediate host), the eggs hatch and release miracidia which penetrate the snail’s intestine ; Genera Cerithidia and Pironella are important snail hosts in Asia and the Middle East respectively; The miracidia undergo several developmental stages in the snail, ie sporocysts , rediae , and cercariae ; Many cercariae are produced from each redia; The cercariae are released from the snail and encyst as metacercariae in the tissues of a suitable fresh/brackish water fish (second intermediate host) ; The definitive host becomes infected by ingesting undercooked or salted fish containing metacercariae ; After ingestion, the metacercariae excyst, attach to the mucosa of the small intestine and mature into adults (measuring 1-0 to 1-7 mm by 0-3 to 0-4 mm) ; In addition to humans, various fish-eating mammals (eg, cats and dogs) and birds can be infected by Heterophyes heterophyes ; Geographic Distribution:Egypt, the Middle East, and Far East; Clinical Features: The main symptoms are diarrhea and colicky abdominal pain; Migration of the eggs to the heart, resulting in potentially fatal myocardial and valvular damage, has been reported from the Philippines; Migration to other organs (eg, brain) has also been reported; Laboratory Diagnosis:The diagnosis is based on the microscopic identification of eggs in the stool; However, the eggs are indistinguishable from those of Metagonimus yokogawai and resemble those of Clonorchis and Opisthorchis; Treatment:Praziquantel* is the drug of choice

Heterophyes heterophyes is a digenetic trematode that resides in the small intestine of its host; It infects humans, as well as cats, foxes, and dogs; The parasite is one of the smallest trematodes infecting humans, averaging about 1;5 mm in length;


External Links Related to Heterophyes intestinal fluke
PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
NGC (National Guideline Clearinghouse)
Medscape (eMedicine)
Harrison's Online (accessmedicine)
NEJM (The New England Journal of Medicine)