Disease Information for Glomerulonephritis/Glomerulitis

Clinical Manifestations
Signs & Symptoms
Facial edema/swelling
Bilateral ankle swelling
Bilateral leg edema/swelling
Diastolic hypertension
Fluid retention/Mild edema
High blood pressure child
High blood pressure/sign
Abdominal Pain
Anorexia Decreased appetite
Edema of Lower Extremities
Dyspnea on exertion
Arthralgias Polyarthralgias
Coca-Cola dark (coffee colored) urine
Dark urine
Frothy urine/Foamy
Post-exercise gross hematuria
Smokey colored urine
Fever in kids
Periorbital edema/Puffy eyes
Clinical Presentation & Variations
Presentation/Painless Gross hematuria
Demographics & Risk Factors
Exposure Factors
Established Disease Population
Laboratory Tests
Abnormal Lab Findings (Non Measured)
Renal function abnormalities (Lab)
URINE Color Brown
URINE Color Red Brown
URINE Dipstick /Blood abnormal
URINE Dipstick/Leukocytes Positive
URINE Pyuria
URINE Sediment/Urinalysis abnormal
Abnormal Lab Findings - Decreased
Creatine clearance (Lab)
URINE Specific gravity
Abnormal Lab Findings - Increased
Anti-neutrophilic/cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) (Lab)
Beta2-microglobulin, serum (Lab)
BUN/Blood urea nitrogen (Lab)
BUN/Creatinine ratio (Lab)
URINE Casts erythrocytes
URINE Epithelial Casts
URINE Fatty casts
URINE Granular Casts
URINE Hematuria, microscopic
URINE Leukocyte casts
URINE Leukocytes
URINE Protein (Albumin)
URINE Red blood cells
URINE Waxy Casts
Diagnostic Test Results
BX/Renal Abnormal
BX/Renal glomerular epithelial hypertrophy
BX/Renal glomerulous cellular infiltrate
Ultrasound/Renal/Kidneys echogenic cortex bilateral
Associated Diseases & Rule outs
Rule Outs
Amyloidosis, renal
Amyloidosis, systemic
Nephritis, interstitial
Subacute endocarditis, infective
Associated Disease & Complications
Acute anuria/renal failure
Azotemia in Elderly
Hypertension in a child
Hypertension, secondary
Nephrosis/primary renal disease
Nephrotic syndrome
Renal Failure Chronic
Proteinuria in Children
Disease Mechanism & Classification
CLASS/Primary renal disease (ex)
CLASS/Renal/kidney involvement/disorder (ex)
CLASS/Urologic (category)
Pathophysiology/ANCA Glomerulonephritis
Pathophysiology/Anti-GBM Glomerulonephritis
Pathophysiology/Decreased glomerular filtration
Pathophysiology/Immune-complex Glomerulonephritis
Pathophysiology/Intrinsic Parenchymal Renal Failure
PROCESS/Allergy/collagen/autoimmune (category)
PROCESS/Inflammatory/infection (ex)
PROCESS/Glomerular lesions/disorder (ex)
Drug Therapy - Indication
SX/Renal biopsy
Surgical Procedures or Treatments

Edema; Hypertension; Hematuria (with or without dysmorphic red cells, red blood cell casts); Acute glomerulonephritis usually signifies an inflammatory process causing renal dysfunction over days to weeks that may or may not resolve; If the inflammatory process is severe, the glomerulonephritis may lead to a greater than 50% loss of nephron function over the course of just weeks to months; Such a process, called rapidly progressive acute glomerulonephritis, can cause permanent damage to glomeruli if not identified and treated rapidly; Prolonged inflammatory changes can result in chronic glomerulonephritis with persistent renal abnormalities that progress to ESRD; Edema is first seen in regions of low tissue pressure such as the periorbital and scrotal areas; Hypertension, if present, is due to volume overload rather than vasoactive substances such as angiotensin II, whose levels are low; Serum chemistries: There are no serum chemistries characteristic of nephritic syndrome, but certain special tests are often performed depending on the history and the results of the preliminary evaluation; These include complement levels, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), cryoglobulins, hepatitis serologies, ANCA, anti-GBM antibodies, antistreptolysin O (ASO) titers, and C3 nephritic factor; Serologic analysis of patients with glomerulonephritis; ANCA, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies; GBM, glomerular basement membrane; GN, glomerulonephritis; MPGN, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis; The urinalysis shows red blood cells; These may be misshapen from traversing a damaged capillary membrane-so-called dysmorphic red blood cells; Red blood cell casts and moderate degrees of proteinuria are also characteristic of the urinary sediment; Placing the patient in a lordotic position for an hour increases sensitivity for finding red cell casts in the next urine specimen; Renal biopsy should be considered if there are no other contraindications to biopsy (eg, Amyloid, bleeding disorders, thrombocytopenia, uncontrolled hypertension); Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is likely when over 50% of glomeruli contain crescents; The type of disease can be categorized according to the immunofluorescent pattern and appearance on electron microscopy; Treatment includes aggressive reduction of hypertension and fluid overload and specific therapeutic maneuvers aimed at the underlying cause; Salt and water restriction, diuretic therapy, and possibly dialysis are needed; The inflammatory glomerular injury may require corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents; [CMDXRX 2005];


External Links Related to Glomerulonephritis/Glomerulitis
PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
NGC (National Guideline Clearinghouse)
Medscape (eMedicine)
Harrison's Online (accessmedicine)
NEJM (The New England Journal of Medicine)