Disease Information for Gastrontestinal Stromal/Mesenchymal Tumor (GIST)

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Clinical Manifestations
Signs & Symptoms
Abdominal fullness feeling
Anorexia Decreased appetite
Coffee ground vomitus
Dark/Black Melena Stool
Epigastric mass
Gastric symptoms/signs
Maroon colored stool
Postprandial bloating/fullness
Stool color/appearance abnormal
Vomiting blood/hematemesis
Pallor
Weight Loss
Disease Progression
Course/Chronic disorder
Course/Chronic only
Demographics & Risk Factors
Past History
Past history/Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
Sex & Age Groups
Population/Fifties adult
Population/Male
Laboratory Tests
Abnormal Lab Findings (Non Measured)
Dropping hematocrit/hemoglobin (Lab)
Abnormal Lab Findings - Increased
Fecal Calprotectin (LAB)
Diagnostic Test Results
Other Tests & Procedures
Colonoscopy/Abnormal
Gastroscopy/Abnormal
Gastroscopy/Gastric lesion
Pathology
BX/Gastric biopsy/Abnormal
Isotope Scan
Isotope/Tagged RBC/Bleeding scan abnormal
CT Scan
CT/Enterography Abnormal
X-RAY
Xray/Mass in pancreatic area/KUB
X-RAY With contrast
BE/Abnormality (barium enema)
SBS/Abnormal Small Bowel Series
UGI/Abnormal
UGI/Stomach filling defect
Ultrasound
Ultrasound/Abdomen Abnormal
Ultrasound/Abdomen and pelvis abnormal
Ultrasound/Upper abdomen abnormal
Associated Diseases & Rule outs
Rule Outs
Gastric varices
Associated Disease & Complications
Anemia of blood loss
Bowel stricture
Constipation
Gastrointestinal bleeding
GI blood loss, chronic
Intestinal/bowel obstruction
Intestine, small, leiomyosarcoma
Iron deficiency anemia
Small Intestine Bleeding
Upper GI bleeding
Disease Mechanism & Classification
Class
CLASS/Smooth muscle disorder (ex)
CLASS/Intestinal disorder (ex)
CLASS/Intestinal/stomach/gut (category)
CLASS/Omentum disorder
CLASS/Stomach disorder (ex)
CLASS/Connective tissue/Mesenchyme matrix disorder
Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology/Blood vessel/vascular cancer spread
Pathophysiology/Gene locus 4q11-12
Pathophysiology/KIT gene [Tyrosinase oncogene)
Pathophysiology/Mesenchymal/tissue neoplasm
Pathophysiology/Radioresistant malignancy/relative
Pathophysiology/Small bowel bleeding source/adults
Process
PROCESS/Benign tumor (ex).
PROCESS/Gastrointestinal malignancy/Cancer (ex)
PROCESS/Malignancy/cancer (ex)
PROCESS/Neoplastic (category)
PROCESS/Sarcoma (ex)
PROCESS/Sarcoma/site Retroperitoneum/mesentery predilection
PROCESS/GI Tumors (all)
PROCESS/GI tumors/children (ex)
Synonyms
Synonym
GANT, Gastrointestinal Autonomic Nerve Tumor, Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumour, Gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumor, Gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumour, Gastrointestinal Stromal Neoplasm, Gastrointestinal Stromal Neoplasms, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (disorder), Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (morphologic abnormality), Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Gastrointestinal stromal tumour, GASTROINTESTINAL TUMOR STROMAL, GIST, GIST Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, Neoplasm Gastrointestinal Stromal, Neoplasms Gastrointestinal Stromal, Stromal Neoplasm Gastrointestinal, Stromal Neoplasms Gastrointestinal, stromal tumor gastrointestinal, Stromal Tumors Gastrointestinal, Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST), Synonym/GIST (Gastrointestinal Stromal tumor)
Treatment
Drug Therapy - Indication
RX/Imatinib (Gleevec/Glivec)
RX/Sunitinib (Sutent)
SX/Laparotomy
Surgical Procedures or Treatments
SX/Biopsy
SX/Surgery
Definition

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract; GISTs can also originate in the mesentery and omentum; Overall, GISTs are rare and rank a distant third in prevalence behind adenocarcinomas and lymphomas among the histologic types of gastrointestinal tract tumors; Historically, these lesions were classified as leiomyomas or leiomyosarcomas because they possessed smooth muscle features when examined under light microscopy; Since the term GIST was introduced by Mazur and Clark in 1983, laboratory investigations aimed at the subcellular and molecular levels have demonstrated that GISTs do not possess the ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features characteristic of smooth muscle differentiation, as are seen in leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas; Subset of smooth muscle sarcomas;Rather

GISTs is a pluripotential mesenchymal stem cell programmed to differentiate into the interstitial cell of Cajal; These are GI pacemaker cells and are largely responsible for initiating and coordinating GI motility; GI pacemaker cell tumors; GISTs can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract; They are submucosal lesions, which most frequently grow endophytically in parallel with the lumen of the affected structure; Approximately 50-70% originate in the stomach; The small intestine 20-30% ;colon and rectum (5-15%) and esophagus (<5%); Primary omental or mesenteric GISTs have been reported but are very rare; Outcomes in patients with GIST depends clinical presentation and the histopathological features of the tumor; The overall 5-year survival rate ranges from 28-60%; Race: GISTs have no known racial proclivity; Sex: Slightly more males; Age Usually patient is , 55-65 y; ; rarer in younger adults but extremely uncommon in children;rare 10-20/million;

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External Links Related to Gastrontestinal Stromal/Mesenchymal Tumor (GIST)
Google
Wikipedia
Merck
Images
PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
NGC (National Guideline Clearinghouse)
Medscape (eMedicine)
Harrison's Online (accessmedicine)
NEJM (The New England Journal of Medicine)
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