Disease Information for Ebola virus disease: Definition

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  • A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by the EBOLA VIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire; The natural reservoir and mode of transmission of the virus are unknown, but secondary infection is by direct contact with infected blood and other body secretions; (From Dorland, 28th ed)--------------------------------------incubation is 3-18 days; major hemorrhagic and hepatitis effect, minor encephalitis effect, absent nephropathy;------------------------------ Outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever are associated most often with the introduction of the virus into the community by one infected person, followed by dissemination by person-to-person transmission, often within medical facilities; incubation 6 days, which is commonly followed by two clinical phases; Early symptoms include fever, asthenia, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, headaches, arthralgia, and back pain; Bilateral conjunctivitis, nonpruritic rash, and sore throat with odynophagia, when present, suggest Ebola virus infection; The second phase, characterized by hemorrhagic manifestations, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, and oligouria, portends a worse outcome; Mortality during outbreaks typically exceeds 50%; Clinical diagnosis is challenging, because the presentation is nonspecific;

    ELISA, PCR, and virus isolation can be used to confirm Ebola virus infection within a few days of the onset of symptoms; [Rudolph"s Pediatrics 2002]

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