Disease Information for Carcinoma, renal cell: Definition

  • Carcinoma of the renal parenchyma usually occurring in middle age or later and composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements; metastasis into vena cava and bone, lung, and brain-----------------------------------------------------------Gross or microscopic hematuria; Flank pain or mass in some patients; Systemic symptoms such as fever, weight loss may be prominent; Solid renal mass on imaging;

    Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 2-6% of all adult cancers; Renal cell carcinoma has a peak incidence in the sixth decade of life and a male-to-female ratio of 2:1; The cause is unknown; Cigarette smoking is the only significant environmental risk factor that has been identified; Familial settings for renal cell carcinoma have been identified (von Hippel–Lindau syndrome) as well as an association with dialysis-related acquired cystic disease, but sporadic tumors are far more common; Renal cell carcinoma originates from the proximal tubule cells; Various cell types (clear, granular, spindle) and histologic patterns (acinar, papillary, solid) are observed; However, cell type and histologic pattern do not affect treatment; Historically, 60% of patients presented with gross or microscopic hematuria; Flank pain or an abdominal mass was detected in approximately 30% of cases; The triad of flank pain, hematuria, and mass was found in only 10–15% of patients and is often a sign of advanced disease; Symptoms of metastatic disease (cough, bone pain) occur in 20–30% of patients at presentation; Because of the more widespread use of ultrasound and CT scanning for diverse indications, renal tumors are being detected incidentally in patients with no urologic symptoms;

    Hematuria is present in 60% of patients; Paraneoplastic syndromes are not uncommon in renal cell carcinoma; Erythrocytosis from increased erythropoietin production occurs in 5%, though anemia is far more common; hypercalcemia may be present in up to 10% of patients; Stauffer"s syndrome is a reversible syndrome of hepatic dysfunction in the absence of metastatic disease;