Disease Information for Cysticercosis

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Clinical Manifestations
Signs & Symptoms
Abdominal Mass
Muscle Pain
Myalgias
Tender or painful muscles/Myalgias
Headache
Neurological symptoms/signs
Constitutional symptoms
Disease Progression
Course/Chronic disorder
Course/Chronic only
Demographics & Risk Factors
Exposure Factors
Exposure/Pets
Exposure/Raw pork ingestion
Laboratory Tests
Microbiology & Serology Findings
Microlab/Taenia Solium isolate/larva
Diagnostic Test Results
CT Scan
CT Scan/Head Brain Cyst
MRI/Head Cystic lesion brain
X-RAY
Xray/Subcutaneous ossification centers/calcification
Xray/Abdominal calcifications/ABD
Xray/Abdominal film abnormalities/ABD/KUB
Xray/Muscle calcification
Xray/Soft tissue calcification/muscle/subcutaneous
Xray/Calcifications intracranial/brain/Skull
Xray/Intracranial solitary calcification/Head
Xray/Multiple intracranial calcifications/Head
Associated Diseases & Rule outs
Rule Outs
Hydatid liver cyst
Associated Disease & Complications
Cysticercosis
Infectious myopathy
Meningitis, chronic
Optic neuritis
Disease Mechanism & Classification
Specific Agent
AGENT/Cestode/tapeworm parasite (ex)
AGENT/Encysted larval pathophysiology
AGENT/Larval effects
AGENT/Man/secondary parasitic host/pattern
AGENT/Migrating/invading larval forms
AGENT/Parasites (category)
AGENT/Zoonosis disease (ex)
Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology/Metastasizing parasitic cyst/cancer-like
Pathophysiology/Myositis/Infection
Process
PROCESS/Cysts (ex)
PROCESS/Infection/agent specific (category)
Synonyms
Synonym
Cystercercosis, Cysticerciasis, Cysticercoses, Cysticercosis, Cysticercosis (disorder), Cysticercosis unspecified, Cysticercosis unspecified (disorder), E 652 INFECTIONS BY TAPEWORM LARVAE, Infection by tapeworm larvae, Infection by tapeworm larvae (disorder), INFECTIONS BY TAPEWORM LARVAE, Larval taeniasis, Larval tapeworm infection, Larval teniasis, Synonym/Cystocercosis
Treatment
Drug Therapy - Indication
RX/Albendazole (Albenza)
RX/Praziquantel (Biltricide)
Surgical Procedures or Treatments
SX/Surgical resection/removal/biopsy
Definition

Infection with CYSTICERCUS, a larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T solium in man); In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum; Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS; (From Dorland, 28th ed)------------------History of exposure to Taenia solium in an endemic region; concomitant or past intestinal tapeworm infection;

Subcutaneous or muscular nodules (5–10 mm); calcified lesions on x-rays of soft tissues; Calcified or uncalcified cysts by CT scan or MRI; positive serologic tests; Human cysticercosis is infection by the larval (cysticercus) stage of the tapeworm T solium (see above); Worldwide, an estimated 20 million persons are infected and 50,000 deaths occur yearly; Antibody prevalence rates to 10% are recognized in some endemic areas; The infection is one the most important causes of seizures in the developing world; Cysticerci complete their development within 2–4 months after larval entry and live for months to 20 years; Initially, a live larva grows within a thin-walled 10–20 mm cyst (the vesicular cyst) but remains minimally antigenic, causes little or no perilesional inflammation, and does not enhance with contrast media on neuroimaging; Attached to the inner wall of the cyst is an invaginated protoscolex with four suckers and a crown of hooks; When host immune response or chemotherapy causes gradual death of the cyst, marked inflammation and pericyst edema can occur, producing a ring-like or nodular area of enhancement with contrast media (the granulomatous or enhancing cyst); concurrent events include cyst enlargement, mechanical compression, increased intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid changes, and sometimes a vasculitis that results in small cerebral infarcts; As the cyst degenerates over 2–7 years, it may become undetectable with imaging or be replaced by fibrosis with calcification that is detectable; Locations of cysts in order of frequency are the central nervous system , subcutaneous tissues and striated muscle, vitreous humor of the eye, other tissues;

When symptomatic, the incubation period is highly variable (usually from 1 to 5 years); lesions on neuroimaging studies, (2) positive immunologic tests with serum fluid, cysticercosis outside the central nervous system, clinical history, Plain radiographs of muscle (especially of thigh and calf) may detect oval or linear calcified lesions (4–10 x 2–5 mm); The lesions are usually multiple, sometimes in the hundreds, and the long axes of the cysts are nearly always in the plane of the surrounding muscle fibers; (Current Medical DX RX 2005)

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External Links Related to Cysticercosis
Google
Wikipedia
Merck
Images
PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
NGC (National Guideline Clearinghouse)
Medscape (eMedicine)
Harrison's Online (accessmedicine)
NEJM (The New England Journal of Medicine)
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