- Differential Diagnosis
- Try building your search one term at a time, and be as specific as you can! Search term example: "chronic cough".
- Do not enter multiple findings such as "anemia, chronic cough, weight loss, vomiting" all at the same time.
- After selecting your term from the search results a list of possible diagnoses will be generated. If the list is too long, you will be able to narrow it down by entering additional terms.
- Do not enter values such as "heart rhythm 110" or "sodium 125", instead use "tachycardia" or "hyponatremia".
- Disease Information
- Disease Comparison
Disease Processes ▼
- Auto Immune
- Infected Organ-Abcess
- Infectious agent
- Poison Agent
- Poisoned Organ
- Structural-Anatomic-Foreign body
- Surgical Procedure-Complication
Major Organs-Systems ▼
- Nervous & Sensory System (Neurology)
- Cardiovascular System
- Respiratory (Pulmonary) System
- Gastro-Intestinal (Digestive) System
- Urinary System
- Dermatologic System
- Endocrine System
- Immune System
- Musculoskeletal System
- Genital Reproductive System
- Hematopoietic System (Hematology)
- Lymphatic System
Disease Information for Carbidopa (Lodosyn) Administration/Toxicity
Available only to registered users.
- 3 possible findings found
- Associated Diseases & Rule outs
- Associated Disease & Complications
- Carbidopa toxicity
- Disease Mechanism & Classification
- DRUG/Anti-parkinsons medication (examples)
- PROCESS/Medication/Drug (CONFIRM dose/before treatment)
- ( ) L alpha Hydrazino 3,4 dihydroxy alpha methylhydrocinnamic Acid, alpha Methyldopa hydrazine, alpha Methyldopahydrazine, Benzenepropanoic Acid alpha hydrazino 3,4 dihydroxy alpha methyl ,(S), Benzenepropanoic acid alpha hydrazino 3,4 dihydroxy alpha methyl monohydrate (S), carbidopa, Carbidopa (product), Carbidopa (substance), CARBIDOPA PREPARATION, CBD, methyldopahydrazine, Brand name/Lodosyn (Carbodopa), Brand name/Parcopa (Carbidopa-Levodopa), Brand name/Stalevo comb (Carbidopa/Levodopa/Entacapone)
Carbidopa, which inhibits the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of levodopa to dopamine, does not cross the blood-brain barrier. When levodopa is given in combination with carbidopa, the extracerebral breakdown of levodopa is diminished. This reduces the amount of levodopa required daily for beneficial effects, and it lowers the incidence of nausea, vomiting, hypotension, and cardiac irregularities. Such a combination does not prevent the development of the "on-off phenomenon," and the incidence of other side effects (dyskinesias or psychiatric complications) may actually be increased.
Sinemet, a commercially available preparation that contains carbidopa and levodopa in a fixed ratio (1:10 or 1:4), is generally used. Treatment is started with a small dose—eg, one tablet of Sinemet 25/100 (containing 25 mg of carbidopa and 100 mg of levodopa) three times daily—and gradually increased depending on the response. Sinemet CR is a controlled-release formulation (containing 25 or 50 mg of carbidopa and 100 or 200 mg of levodopa). It is sometimes helpful in reducing fluctuations in clinical response to treatment and in reducing the frequency with which medication must be taken. The commercially available combination of levodopa with both carbidopa and entacapone (Stalevo) may also be helpful in this context and is discussed in the following section on COMT inhibitors. Response fluctuations are also reduced by keeping the daily intake of protein at the recommended minimum and taking the main protein meal as the last meal of the day.
The dyskinesias and behavioral side effects of levodopa are dose-related, but reduction in dose may eliminate any therapeutic benefit.
[current dxrx 2005 accessmedicine]
- External Links Related to Carbidopa (Lodosyn) Administration/Toxicity
- PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- NGC (National Guideline Clearinghouse)
- Medscape (eMedicine)
- Harrison's Online (accessmedicine)
- NEJM (The New England Journal of Medicine)