Disease Information for Acanthosis nigricans

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Clinical Manifestations
Signs & Symptoms
Thickened skin/diffuse
Associated Diseases & Rule outs
Associated Disease & Complications
Acanthosis nigricans
Disease Mechanism & Classification
Class
CLASS/Dermatologic/Subcutaneous (category)
Process
PROCESS/Paraneoplastic disorder (ex)
Definition

A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder--------------------------------------.

Acanthosis Nigricans; AN

Disorder Subdivisions: Acanthosis Nigricans With Insulin Resistance Type A; Acanthosis Nigricans With Insulin Resistance Type B; Benign Acanthosis Nigricans;

Drug-induced Acanthosis Nigricans; Hereditary Benign Acanthosis Nigricans;Malignant Acanthosis Nigricans; Pseudoacanthosis Nigricans.

Discussion :Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a skin disorder characterized by abnormally increased coloration (hyperpigmentation) and "velvety" thickening (hyperkeratosis) of the skin, particularly of skin fold regions, such as of the neck and groin and under the arms (axillae); Various benign (non-cancerous) forms of AN have been identified in which the disorder may be inherited as a primary condition or associated with various underlying syndromes; an excess accumulation of body fat (obesity); or the use of certain medications (ie, drug-induced AN); In other instances, AN may occur in association with an underlying cancerous tumor (ie, malignant AN);

Experts suggest that AN may be a skin manifestation of insulin resistance, which is a condition characterized by impaired biological responses to insulin; Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, regulates blood glucose levels by promoting the movement of glucose into cells for energy production or into the liver and fat cells for storage; (Glucose is a simple sugar that is the body"s primary source of energy for cell metabolism) Insulin resistance may be associated with various disorders, including obesity and non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus; In individuals with type II diabetes mellitus, the pancreas produces insulin but the body becomes resistant to its effects, leading to insufficient absorption of glucose and abnormally increased glucose levels in the blood (hyperglycemia) and urine; As a result, there may be a gradual onset of certain symptoms, including excessive urination (polyuria) and increased thirst (polydipsia), and the development of particular complications without appropriate treatment.[NORD 2005]

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External Links Related to Acanthosis nigricans
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Harrison's Online (accessmedicine)
NEJM (The New England Journal of Medicine)
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